Purdue University Global

Unit 6 Annotated Bibliography Assignment 

Thesis statement: Restaurants in the community should switch from plastic straws to steel straws because this will encourage a safer environment for the aquatic wildlife, create reusable material that does not leach chemicals, and decrease the amount of plastic waste on landfills.

Vigdor, N. (2019, July 11). Fatal Accident With Metal Straw Highlights a Risk. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/11/world/europe/metal-straws-death.html

Neil Vigdor’s article suggests that metal straws can pose a great danger to the human race. He explains the common risks of injuries from steel straws that result from specific cups not having lids that should give the ability for straws to move freely by sharing a devastating recent event of a woman who suffered a traumatic brain injury after falling at her home (Vigdor, 2019). 

New York Times has been publishing since 1951, won over 127 Pulitzer Prizes, and covers different weekly sections including, general news, sports, editorials, and features. I was able to identify the author of my source, Neil Vigdor, and found that he is an award-winning journalist that often publishes on New York Times and in the past, happened to interview Donald Trump, Mitt Romney, Michelle Obama, etc. In the article, “Fatal Accident With Metal Straw Highlights a Risk”, he cites his research to support his information and thoughts.

This article can be used as an opposing perspective or challenge to my argument. Certainly, this accident is mind-blowing, but the lids are not the problem. Creating safe environments for everyone including people with disabilities and children should be enforced (ADA requirements) so situations when someone falls, will no longer end with a fatal accident.

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2018, September 1). Plastic Pollution. Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution

This website has a ton of helpful graphs and tables that shows the main data entry on plastics, that has a main focus on the pollution of the environment.

Figure 1. Eriksen et al. (2014). Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution

As shown on the graph, in 2013, a total of 268,950 tons of plastic waste (ranging from small micro plastics to macro plastics) are floating at the ocean surface. Of the 268,950 tons, 96,400 tons of plastic waste sits at the North Pacific ocean, while 59,130 tons sits at the Indian Ocean and 23,150 tons sits at the Mediterranean sea, according to the Our World in Data (Ritchie & Roser, 2018). Furthermore, the site has a graphic that provides a summary of evidence of marine plastic impact on sea mammals:

Figure 2. Rocham et al. (2016). Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/ecological-impacts-of-marine-plastic-debris

As the graph shows, a majority of sea animals suffer from entanglement of plastic material that often leads to death and dermal wounds, clear evidence of how plastic waste is endangering our marine life (Ritchie & Roser, 2018). 

I believe the Our Would in Data website is a credible source to find statistics; the page was first published in September 2018, and according to their home page, this website presents data and research on the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals and is regularly cited in top journals including Science and Nature (Ritchie & Roser, “About”, n.d.).

Lehner, R. (2014, November 12). Sifting Through an Ocean of Plastic: An Interview With Roman Lehner. Retrieved from http://www.planetexperts.com/sifting-ocean-plastic-interview-roman-lehner/

This organization has developed many resources on its website that exposes environmental threats and eco-friendly solutions. The page titled, “Sifting Through an Ocean of Plastic: An Interview With Roman Lehner” is an interview with a marine biologist who is also a member of the OceanCare organization. This interview describes what kind of danger does micro plastics in the ocean pose to the environment and human health, how much plastic reaches our ocean, and how to prevent plastic from reaching the ocean (Lehner, 2014). 

On their “About Us” page, the organization explains that they are a community of global changemakers that is rapidly growing and committed to saving the earth. They are able to connect leading scientists, advocates, innovators, visionaries, and journalists to meet their goal. This organization has an editorial team that reports and investigates environmental news that will help me to support my thesis that restaurant owner should switch from plastic straws to a more sustainable solution, stainless steel straws (Lehner, n.d.).

Frederic Gallo, Cristina Fossi, Roland Weber, David Santillo, Joao Sousa, Imogen Ingram, … Dolores Romano. (2018). Marine litter plastics and micro plastics and their toxic chemicals components: the need for urgent preventive measures. Environmental Sciences Europe, (1), 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-018-0139-z

This article explains the possible exposures of chemical hazards in plastics in the marine

environment. To be specific, the authors explain that even though plastic is not the only way the marine life can be exposed the chemicals, evidence supports that plastics make an important contribution to exposures to challenging chemical contaminants (Gallo et al., 2018). They also note that some chemicals are intentionally added while in the production phase. This in which is the beginning of the chemical exposure to the human race. 

I found this article in the Purdue Global Library, which leads me to believe that this is a reliable source. I was able to identify that this article was published in 2018 and written by a team of authors who often take part in protecting the environment. This article has helped me obtain factual information that will support my thesis that stainless steel straws are more reasonable than plastic straws because they do not expose chemicals the environment or human health as well as why plastic straws should no longer be used.